Importance of Performance Measurement and Performance Appraisal in Human Resource Development

How Performance Appraisal Contributed to the Development of Human Resources is a burning issue in the field of HR management. Performance measurement or appraisal is a core function of human resource management and has remained an imperative area of research among organizational researchers (Dulebohn and Ferris, 1999). Elmuti et al. (1992) argue that performance appraisals are used typically in organizations for two broad purposes: as an evaluative function for making decisions regarding merit pay, promotions, demotions, transfers, and retention and/or as developmental function to identify areas for employee growth and improvement and recommending ways of improving performance or the potential for performance. An effective performance appraisal enhances employees’ perceptions and understanding of job tasks and results in job satisfaction (Shen, 2004). It leads managerial career development, career progression and compensation adjustments (Schuler et al., 2002). First objective of the appraisal mechanism is to develop and build the capacity of employees by providing them formal feedback on job performance (Shen, 2004). Furthermore, performance appraisal is an instrumental tool to influence both the extrinsic and intrinsic motivations of employees and their attitudes towards organizations (Shen, 2004). Continue reading


Impact of Psychological Contract on Employment Relations & Employee Motivation

The psychological contract is an abstract term that ‘pundits’ like to coin while vaguely referring to the relationship between employers and employees (Clutterbuck, 2005). Although the concept of psychological contract is widely researched in recent years, this concept can be traced back to the work of Argyris (1962, cites in DelCampo, 2007). Rousseau (1995) specifies ‘Psychological Contract’ as the views and opinions of the employees, which is shaped by the organization, towards the expressions of the mutual agreement between employees and their organization. Continue reading

How National Culture Shapes Management Styles in Bangladesh?

Organizational culture involves everything an organization does and everything it makes (Peters and Waterman, 1982). The above statement indicates that organizational culture not only shapes the way managers manage their employees but also depict the way employees behave in a particular manner (White, 1984). The author illustrates this with an example that if the persistent belief of a manager is that only the blue-collar employees is able to operate a machine, in that case the issues such as mutual goal setting, positive feedback, open channel of communication and participation, and innovation are being ignored by the organization as this pointed at the traditional aspects of managers denying to figure out the new ways to manage. Continue reading

Leadership Styles: Pros and Cons (Final Part)

Coaching Leadership Style

This is a suitable style of leadership for organizations where leaders are constantly confronting with challenges from the volatile business environment as a result of substantial business development and in need of an effective approach to handle the situations (CIPD, 2009). Continue reading

Leadership Styles: Pros & Cons (Part 2)

Participative/Democratic Leadership Style

The assumption behind participative leadership (also known as democratic leadership) is that employees will assume a significant role in achieving the organizational objectives where leader’s role will be the creation of a conducive environment in which organizational objectives can be accomplished. In participative leadership style, a greater emphasis is given on employee participation and group work where employees enjoy the autonomy in producing and assessing the courses of action (Husband, 1975). Continue reading

Leadership Styles: Pros & Cons (Part 1)

Leadership is a process of influencing a group people to accomplish a common goal. In organizational context, a leader is one who has substantial influences on the employees concerning how they behave, act, and perform in an organizational setting. Global leadership is a form where leader possess knowledge of global businesses in terms of social, cultural, economic, legal, technological and political aspects and familiarize themselves with the effects of these issues of globalization. Global leadership occurs a leader holds and keeps a global mindset (Bhushan and Rai, 2004). Continue reading

Factors Influencing Managers’ Styles of Management

It has been specified by Roskin (1989: p.19) that there is a well-established perspective concerning the factors on which the success of management styles relies on, which are as follows:

• the individual personality of the manager himself (Trait theory revisited);

• the individual followers, the kind of people they are and the kind of work they do, and

• the particular situation and circumstances on any given day or hour (Owens, 1973 cited in Roskin, 1989). Continue reading

An Overview of Management Styles

For the most part, the development of management theories and practices has taken place during nineteenth and twentieth century’s, the growth of which was the consequences of the operations of different private and public sector organizations (Modern, 2004). Though it has not been long since the profound development in management principles and practices has flourished and emerged as a formal discipline, the subsistence of management and organized operations has been around for thousands of years (Robbins and Decenzo, 2005). In support of this, the authors have provided the example of Pyramids where the use of management and organized activities in their construction can be precisely assumed. Continue reading

Impact of Leadership on Organizational Success

Business organizations are, in no doubt, continually facing new challenges in this present first paced rapidly changing hostile business environment (Basu, 2001). A number of issues triggered business environment to change at a tremendous pace, which involved economic development, shifting political standpoints, changes in people’s perceptions, needs & wants, technological advancement, vigorous business environment, extreme competition, changes in business strategies, changes in leadership and management styles and so on (Maheshawri, 1997). As a result, businesses are forced to change their Continue reading

Human Resource Management & Strategic Human Resource Management (HRM vs. SHRM)


Recruiting and selecting is the most important function in Human Resource Management and hiring the right person is very crucial for an organization to be succeeded as Collins (2001:13) points out that

People are not your most important asset. The right people are.

The dynamic fast paced competitive business environment requires organizations to recruit skilled and knowledgeable people who can help the businesses sustain in the long run. Bratton and Gold (2007) specified HRM as a means of achieving organizational effectiveness through deploying employees’ talent by the use of idiosyncratic HR programs and practices. Human resource management is the process that helps organizations get competitive edge over other competitors by recruiting and retaining the Continue reading